Therefore, sweet crude is typically more desirable and valuable than sour crude. GCSE Chemistry Introduction. Why does the quiz say bitumen is used to fuel cars?     Each Fraction is actually a mixture in itself, hence boiling ranges rather than distinct boiling points. Match the properties shown above to the type of fraction: A fractionating column in an oil refinery. The Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil. The uses of the fuel gas, LPG, refinery gas, gasoline, petrol, naphtha, paraffin, kerosene, diesel oil, gas oil, fuel oil, lubricating oils, wax and bitumen fractions are tabulated. Which of the molecules (A, B, or C) has the lowest boiling point? - Definition, Process & Apparatus, Acid-Base Extraction: Theory, Purpose & Procedure, What is Melting Point? If you got between 0 and 1 correct answer: Ice cold! Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. The applications of this particular fossil fuel are far beyond that of mere electricity generation. See continuous distillation. answer! Sign in, choose your GCSE subjects and see content that's tailored for you. Hydrocarbons Quiz Fractional distillation is based on the same principle distillation works (separating components making use of the difference in volatility of the compounds in a mixture). I felt refreshed after reading that. Rhys Baker (author) from Peterborough, UK on February 22, 2012: Thank-you, claudiafox. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. As such the world turns on the price of oil, and countries have grown fabulously wealthy, and even gone to war, over this thick black gloop. If you want to see the bigger picture involved in oil, get a new perspective with this course on exploring the complexities of globalization and how it shapes the economic landscape. The resulting fractions have different uses depending on their properties, and some fractions are more useful than others. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. It can be refined to obtain gasoline, diesel, etc. You may use these HTML tags and attributes: Currently you have JavaScript disabled. Crude Oil as dug from the ground is completely useless. Toxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic and an environmental disaster waiting to happen. at the bottom and substances with lower boiling points condense on the way to the top. The condenser has a cold circulation of water running through it. Vacuum distillation further distills the residue oil from the bottom of the crude oil distillation unit. A tall fractionating column is fitted above the mixture, with several condensers coming off at different heights. It is a non-renewable resource. We say that the crude oil is separated into fractions. For each question, choose the best answer. All changed. The main fractions of crude oil that will be retrieved from fractional distillation consist of: Refinery gasses: Gasses are obtained at room... See full answer below. life. Copyright ©2020 All rights reserved | by MYAlevels |. So l learned refinery that l got knowledge very very thank you. Shoot for 100%. Simply put - useless. - Definition, Process & Uses, Partition Coefficient: Definition and Calculation, What Is Green Chemistry? Crude oil is vapourised and fed into the bottom of the fractionating column. The fractions with high boiling points (long chain hydrocarbons) condense and are collected at the bottom of the column. As the crude oil rises it reaches its fractions, and being far away from the heat source and falls below its boiling point and condenses on to it. Definition & Relation to Source Reduction, Diazonium Salts: Preparation & Chemical Reactions, Alteration, Obliteration, & Ink Examination, What is Chromatography? Crude Oil is measured in barrels, which is equal to 159 liters. The uses of a fraction is related to its physical properties e.g. - Definition, Range & Determination, What is Centrifugation? Copyright ©2020 All rights reserved | by MYAlevels | it was too confusing I just wanted to find out how alkenes are produced through fractional distillation I'm ver sad now. Each Fraction is actually a mixture in itself, hence boiling ranges rather than distinct boiling points . The diagram below summarises the main fractions from crude oil and their uses, and the trends in properties. - Definition, Types & Uses, What is Sublimation in Chemistry? Hydrocarbons with small molecules have lower boiling points than large hydrocarbons. We’ll look at the refining process in a broader view and then break down the steps involved in fractional distillation. The crude oil is evaporated and its vapours condense at different temperatures in the fractionating column. Fractional distillation in an oil refinery. Fractions with low boiling points (short chain hydrocarbons) rise to the top of the column where they condense and are collected. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. The main source of oil is the remains of prehistoric algae and zooplankton that has settled over a long period at the bottom of an ocean or large body of water. It can be burned in power stations. Names and Uses of Different Fractions. The first step in refining crude oil is known as fractional distillation. I am myanmar. Substances with high boiling points condense at the bottom and substances with lower boiling points condense on the way to the top. gcsescience.com, Home Long chain hydrocarbons have lots of intermolecular forces (think of lots of necklaces getting tangled in a jewellery box) making them difficult to separate. Which fraction is collected in the following locations: Light in colour, runny, and easy to ignite, Dark, viscous (thick liquid), hard to ignite, burns with a smoky flame, At the top of the fractionating column, where the temperature is lowest, At the bottom of the fractionating column, where the temperature is highest, Light fraction, with low boiling point range, Medium fraction, with mid-range boiling point, more difficult to ignite (some smoke in flame), Heavier fraction, with higher boilng points, difficult to ignite (burns with smoky flame). There are restrictions on the use of this courseware. The vacuum distillation is performed at a pressure well below atmospheric pressure. Crude Oil is useless until we separate this mixture using fractional distillation. In order to understand this process, we can look at what happens when we distil crude oil in the lab, as shown in Fig.2 below: Figure 2. What happens to the colour of the fractions as the boiling range of the.